Review on the Relationship between Biodiesel and Environment

Bin Peng

Abstract

Biodiesel is a fuel made from vegetable oils or waste grease. While there is a considerable body of evidence on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational and urban settings, there has been little research examining the impact of biodiesel fuel on occupational and environmental exposures. This dissertation combined a collaborative exposure assessment of B20 (20% soy-based biodiesel/80% diesel) at a rural recycling center with a policy intervention to deliberate the results of this analysis and potential policy outcomes. Researchers and undergraduate students from Keene State College and employees from the City of Keene Department of Public Works quantitatively estimated diesel and biodiesel exposure profiles for particulate matter (< 2.5 microns diameter), elemental carbon, organic carbon, and nitrogen dioxide using standard occupational and environmental air monitoring methods. I collected qualitative data to examine the genesis, evolution and outcomes of the Biodiesel Working Group. Integrating analysis and deliberation led to a number of positive outcomes related to local use of B20 in nonroad engines. Particulate matter and elemental carbon concentrations were significantly reduced (60% and 22% respectively) during B20 use at the field site. Organic carbon levels were significantly higher (370%) during B20 use. Although NO2 levels were 19% higher, this increase was not statistically significant. Connecting the analysis with deliberation improved the quality of the exposure assessment, increased dissemination of the research results in the local community, and catalyzed novel policy outcomes, including the development of a unique public/private partnership to manufacture biodiesel locally from waste grease.

Keywords

Biodiesel; Environmental exposures; Waste grease

References

American Concrete Institute. American Concrete Institute Committee Directory. 23 May 2012. .

American Concrete Institute Committee E-701. “Cementitious Materials for Concrete” ACI Education Bulletin E3-01. American Concrete Institute: Michigan, 2001.

American Concrete Institute. American Concrete Institute Spring 2011 Convention. General Proceedings, conversations, and lectures. Marriott Waterside Hotel, Tampa, Fl. 3-7 April 2011. Annual International Convention.

Arbuckle, Peter. Discovering Institutional Drivers and Barriers to Sustainable Concrete Construction. MA thesis. University of Michigan, 2007. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2008.

American Society for Testing and Materials. "1898-1998 A Century of Progress." ASTM International. ASTM, 1998. 23 May 2012.

.

Australian Government: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science, Research, and Tertiary Education. Home, 2011. 29 Feb. 2012.

/Pages/default.aspx>

Bennett, David. The Art of Precast Concrete: Colour Texture Expression. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2005.

Bennett, David. Sustainable Concrete Architecture. London: RIBA publishing, 2010.

Bock, Brian T. Vice President – Sales Marketing, Dukane Precast. Personal Interview and Tour of Dukane Precast Manufacturing Facility. Naperville, IL. 17 March 2011.

Brehm, Denise. "Cements Basic Molecular Structure Finally Decoded." MIT News. (2009): page. 23 May 2012. .

Brownell, Blaine Ed. Transmaterial: A catalog of Materials That Refine Our Physical Environment. Princeton Architectural Press, New York. 2006.

Caldarone, Michael A. High-strength Concrete: a Practical Guide. London: Taylor & Francis, 2009.

Card Cow. “Ingals Buidling” Web. 25 August 2012.

/276181/ingalls-building-cincinnati-ohio/>

Chiorino, Mario. "Art and Science of Building in Concrete: The Work of Pier Luigi Nervi."Concrete International. 34.3 (2012): 32-40.

Chandler, David. "Gathering 'concrete' Evidence, MIT Class Explores Controversial Pyramid Theory with Scale Model." MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 02 Nov. 2010. .

Coal Combustion Products Partnership. "Coal Combustion Products: Recommendations to Increase Utilization." Coal Ash Facts. 27 May 2012.

Cooperative Research Centers Australia. "Research: Geopolymers Program." Center for Sustainable Resource Processing. Cooperative Research Centers Australia. 23 May 2012. .

Cowie, J. M. G. Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials. Chelthenham, United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2001.

Cramer, Steven M. Structural Design and Materials - Research Needed to Reinvent Housing in the United States. MA thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison:

Department of Civil Engineering. 2004

Davey, Norman. A History of Building Materials. London: Phoenix House, 1961.

Davidovits, Joseph. “30 Years of Successes and Failures in Geopolymers applications, Market Trends and Potential Breakthroughs” Geopolymer Institute, France. 2002.

Davidovits, Joseph. “Environmentally Driven Geopolymer Applications.” Proceedings of the International Geopolymer Conference. Geopolymer Institute, 28-29 Oct. 2002. Melbourne: Australia.

Davidovits, Joseph. “Geopolymers: Man-made Rock Geosynthesis and the Resulting Development of Very Early High Strength Cement” Geopolymer Institute. National Press Club, Washington D.C. 1994.

Davidovits, Joseph. “Global Warming Impact on the Cement and Aggregates Industries.” World Resource Review. 1994. 263-278.

Davidovits, Joseph, ed. Proceedings of the World Congress Geopolymer 2005: Geopolymer, Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development Solutions. 2005 Google Books. 02 Nov. 2010.

=wIFo7L_zO8AC&oi=fnd&pg=PA139&dq=sustainableprecastconcrete&ots=Fk2 tqDaQbX&sig=fXMC6CzACDQxilecCvkDPa3xTmc#v=onepage&q&f=false>.

Davidovits, Joseph. “Properties of Geopolymer Cements” Geopolymer Institute. France, 1994.

Davidovits, Joseph. State of the Geopolymer 2011 Lecture at The Geopolymer Camp. Geopolymer Institute. St. Quentin, France, 2011. < http:// vimeo.com/27768909>

Design Deliverables. “A Green Symbol for AstraZeneca: Water-efficient vegetation in southern yard. Trombe wall and solar shade.” 25 Aug. 2012.

Dukane Precast. Dukane Precast 2010. CD-Rom. disc. 1 Dukane Naperville IL, 2010.

Duxson, Peter, John L. Provis, Crant C. Lukey, Jannie S.J. van Deventer. “The Role of Inorganic Polymer Technology in the Development of ‘Green Concrete’.” Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourn, Victoria, Australia. 2007

Duxson, Peter, John L. Provis. “Low CO2 Concrete: Are We Making Any Progress?” BEDP Environment Design Guid. Monash University, Melbourn, Australia. Nov. 2008.

Ecoseed: Energy, Environment, Economy. “Classical Architecture Inspiration for ‘Green’ Cement” 2012.

Elnimeiri, Majoub, Pairan Gupta. “Sustainable Structures of Tall Buildings.” In The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 881-894. Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Dec. 2008.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Concrete, Introduction to WARM and Concrete”. 2011

Eyed, Ted H. and David A. Holmes. “Zeolites” In. Industrial Minerals and Rocks: commodities, markets, and uses. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (U.S)1039, Littleton, Colorado: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. 2006.

Frohlich, Burkhard. Concrete Architecture Design and Construction. Birkhauser –

Publishers for Architecure. Berlin. 2002

Gartner, Ellis. Scientific Director of Chemistry at Lafarge Research Center. Personal Interview. 21 June 2012.

BCRC - Construction Materials Consulting - Durability Consulting - NDT. “Geopolymers.” 07 Nov. 2010. .

Geopolymer Institute - Home Page. 02 Nov. 2010. .

Geopolymer Institute. “How the Pyramids were Built in Egypt.” 21 Aug. 2012.

Glasby, Tom. Project Manager for Earth Friendly Concrete, Wagners – Australia. “Re: Inquiry from M.S Arch Student at Illinois Institute of Technology.” E-mail to Jacqueline Villa. 9 Feb. 2012.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26789/ams.v5i1.22

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Bin Peng Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.